tisdag 6 januari 2015

Kruselers - sewn or woven?

There are so many kruselers out there, differing in looks and most likely also in technique. Following up on my last blogpost here comes some thoughts on construction of the less elaborate kruselers, mostly seen in 15th Century art. Some say they must all be woven frilled edges. However, there seems to be exceptions.
Mary from "The Deposition" by Rogier van der Weyden, 1435.
Here we see a clear example of what must be a woven frilled edge and it is looking the same through most of Rogier van der Weyden's art. This is obviously an expensive and exclusive fabric, woven by professionals, and you can find it recreated today, but it is costly. Just how exclusive it was can be shown also in the fact that Jesus loin cloth is depicted as frilled, from the time he was wrapped as a baby until his death.
Epitaph for Konrad Winkler and his wives Kundigunde and Adelhaid, Nürnberg 1431.
The same simple frill can also be used in more elaborate styles by simply using it in multiple layers.
Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (detail) 1434 by Jan van Eyck
Detail from St. John Altarpiece by Rogier van der Weyden, 1455 - 1460
The same frilled fabric also seems to be in use in the German styles of late 15th Century, pressing on to the fashions of 16th Century. Here we see one of many examples where it is combined with a vulst.
Portrait of a woman from the Hofer Family, artist unknown, ca 1470
Frills are also in use in Burgundy, England and France, although adapted to the local headdress fashion. 
Portrait of Mary of Burgundy wearing a small frill under her hennin.
Portrait of a young woman, possibly Anne de Dreux, ca 1490.
And by now you are starting to wonder if I will ever get to the point. Where there possibly exceptions from the woven frill in plain single rows? I did find some beautiful frills that do give the impression of having a seam connecting it to the veil, even though it is a single frill when visiting the Germanisches National Museum in Nürnberg on New Years. And they are from the 14th Century, not the 15th. 
Mary, from Frauenkirche in Nürnberg, ca 1360

Female statue from a church in Nürnberg ca 1360.
And in case you now are wondering the artform might have an impact on how the frills are depicted, here is another one in stone, clearly without the line that I would like to interpret as a seam. Same church and same period as the first one.
Statue from the south portal av the Frauenkirche in Nürnberg, ca 1360.

So one can not state, in my opinion, that frills were only woven when done in single rows and simpler styles. Good to know, now I will not have to spend like half a month´s salary on a frilled veil, I can make one myself. Even though I really really like one that is woven.

1 kommentar:

  1. Frilly loincloths yay!
    I also agree with your very sensible opinion.